Queen Kaahumanu (b. 1772, d. 1832)
She was Kamehameha the Great's favorite wife. A bold and intelligent woman, she served as kuhina-nui (premier sharing of kingly power) for Kamehameha II and as regent for Kamehameha III. She played a leading role in the overthrow of the ancient kapu system. In league with the King's mother, Keopuolani, she convinced Kamehameha II to sit down and eat with the women in violation of one of ancient Hawaii's most serious prohibitions. In old Hawaii, women were second-class citizens, more severely handicapped by endless kapus than the men of any class. With the overthrow of the kapu system, she was free to exercise her political authority.
Kamehameha II (b. 1797, d. 1824)
A great contrast from his father, Liholiho (Kamehameha II) was 22 years old when he became King. Kaahumanu confronted the King and said that it had been his father's wish for her to share rulership of the land. Had anyone attempted such audacity in front of Kamehameha I, the culprit might well have been slain on the spot. Liholiho offered no objection and split his power in half with Kaahumanu. Early in his reign, Kaahumanu and his mother, Keopuolani, talked him into sitting down to eat with a group of noble women in view of onlooking commoners. The signal had unmistakenly been given that the ancient religion of Hawaii was dying. Shortly thereafter, Liholiho ordered god images burned and heiaus demolished throughout the islands. In 1823, Kamehameha II, Queen Kamamalu and a few chiefs and women sailed to England. They toured London and joined in entertainments arranged in their honor by the British aristocracy. While there, the King and Queen contracted measles, which Hawaiians had little immunity and died.
Kamehameha III (b. 1814, d. 1854)
Kauikeaouli, the last son of Kamehameha the Great to rule, ascended the throne while he was ten years old, upon the death of his older brother. Kaahumanu governed as regent during Kauikeaouli's boyhood with the assistance of a council of chiefly advisors. He was King at a most difficult period in Hawaii's history. The influx of large numbers of foreign residents brought new problems concerning trade, credit, land titles and a plague of complications unknown to the simple Hawaii of just a few generations earlier. His reign of twenty-nine years was the longest of any Hawaiian monarch.
During his young manhood, personal troubles worthy of a Greek tragedy embittered his life. Prince Kauikeaouli and his sister, Princess Nahienaena, were very much in love. Such unions were acceptable among the nobles of ancient Hawaii, just as they were among Egyptian pharaohs. Close relatives often married to keep the chiefly bloodlines pure and to assure children with powerful "mana." This word describes a Polynesian concept in which certain persons possess supernatural power and authority derived from ancestors who held mana. Tortured by love of her brother and guilt from new-found Christian beliefs that had made inroads into traditional Hawaiian ways, Princess Nahienaena drifted into despondency and died at the age of twenty-one. Long after Prince Kauikeaouli became King Kamehameha III, he regularly visited her grave in Lahaina, Maui.
Kamehameha IV (b. 1834, d. 1863)
He was the first grandson of Kamehameha the Great to become King of Hawaii. During Kamehameha IV's reign and that of his successor, there was a growing agitation on the part of the sugar planters for annexation to the United States to secure a dependable market for their product. Many foreign residents did not wish to become citizens of Hawaii but wanted to be able to vote in elections. They wanted political power to safeguard their interests and would have preferred that common Hawaiians remain vote less.
Kamehameha V (b. 1830, d. 1872)
Brother to Kamehameha IV, Lot Kamehameha was the final direct descendant of Kamehameha the Great to sit on Hawaii's throne and the last Hawaiian monarch to reign in the old style. After him, Hawaii's rulers were elected by the Hawaiian Legislature. Problems with the United States continued as they had during his brother's reign. Agitation by certain elements in favor of annexation by the U.S. threatened Hawaii's independence. Lot tried to defuse relations by promoting a treaty of reciprocity that would allow Hawaiian sugar to enter the American market duty-free. The Civil War had cut the Union off from Southern sugar and so there was a great demand from the North for sugar. Racial troubles increased in Lot's era due to well-founded suspicions that the Whites were trying to take over the Kingdom. In 1866, a fist fight broke out in the Legislature between White and Hawaiian members. Such an incident was probably long overdue for it was a most peculiar legislature wherein white legislators refused to speak Hawaiian, the kingdom's official language, and native Hawaiian members refused to use English. Lot never married and had no child, and died without naming a successor.
Lunalilo (b. 1835, d. 1874)
William Lunalilo was confirmed as King of Hawaii by the Hawaiian Legislature after an informal popular vote. Lunalilo was more liberal than his predecessor and made serious efforts to democratize the constitution. Once again, the question of the treaty of reciprocity with the U.S. rose. The Hawaiian sugar industry needed a natural market like the United States to absorb its increasing production. King Lunalilo allowed himself to endorse the cession of Pearl Harbor, though he felt it was an unwise accommodation to the powerful American giant. Once the news reached the Hawaiian public, they were outraged. Widespread disapproval of the idea forced its eventual abandonment. He died without naming a successor.
Kalakaua (b. 1836, d. 1891)
King David Kalakaua was elected by the Hawaiian Legislature of 1874 amid scenes of violence and indignity. His rival for the throne was the dowager Queen Emma. King Kalakaua was concerned with the well-being of his native Hawaiian people. He maintained a policy of filling administrative posts with Hawaiians wherever possible, a practice that did little to calm the fears of American businessmen who had supported him against Queen Emma. While favoring his people, Kalakaua repeatedly and sincerely insisted that there was room in Hawaii for all kinds of people. King Kalakaua became known in Hawaiian history as the "Merry Monarch." He loved parties, balls and entertainment. He enjoyed talking to such noted visitors as Robert Louis Stevenson. He included mass dances of the ancient sacred hulas in his parties. Toward the end of his reign, his cabinet was overthrown, a new constitution deprived him of almost all his power, and an ill-fated insurrection took place favoring the abdication of Kalakaua and his replacement by Princess Lili'uokalani.
Lili'uokalani (b. 1838, d. 1917)
She was already leading the nation as regent when King Kalakaua died in San Francisco. At the time that she became Queen, the political and economic climate was extremely complicated. Rivalry was intense between white businessmen who dominated the economy and native politicians who still retained the power to get things accomplished. The annexationists were badly outnumbered, and certainty the majority of the Hawaiian people, as well as many white residents, were against annexation. But the economic power structure was not intimidated by mere lack of popular support. On the whole, these businessmen were those who considered Hawaiians incapable of self-government. And, as businessmen, the annexationists believed that the monarchy was too inept to safeguard the interests of property and profits.
Lili'uokalani announced her intention to promulgate a new constitution which would restore the power of the monarchy. A Committee of Safety was formed by prominent annexationists. They took it upon themselves to create a provisional government and a militia. The Queen could have declared martial law and arrested the conspirators, but she felt that this would begin armed conflict which would result in loss of innocent lives. The Committee of Safety then made its move and armed companies of militia took over government buildings and offices. The evening before, marines and sailors from the U.S.S. Boston were landed to keep order in Honolulu and their commander, Captain G.C. Wiltse, openly supported the Provisionals. The Queen was powerless.
Finally on January 17, 1893, the Queen faced the inevitable and surrendered under protest. On January 31, Minister Stevens, at the request of the Provisional Government's advisory council, raised the U.S. flag over Honolulu. Annexation was thought to be a mere formality. President Cleveland's administration concluded that the monarchy had been overthrown by force with the complicity of the U.S. minister.
In 1895, Hawaiians loyal to the Queen staged a revolt in an attempt to restore Lili'uokalani to the throne. The revolt was soon crushed and the Queen was arrested and placed under detention in an apartment of her own I'olani Palace. She was also forced to relinquish any claim to the throne as a condition to obtain amnesty for the Hawaiian rebels.
President McKinley signed the resolution of annexation on July 7, 1898. It may have been a happy day for businessmen and new ruling classes of Hawaii, but for many others it was a day of sadness. Large numbers of royalists and common Hawaiians gathered quietly at the home of deposed Queen Lili'uokalani and Crown Princess Kaiulani to silently console them and pay homage to the last monarch of the forever-lost kingdom.
Victoria Kawekiu Lunalilo Kalaninuiahilapalapala Kaiulani was born to Princess Miriam Likelike and Archibald Cleghorn, a prominent Honolulu businessman born in Edinburgh Scotland. She was to be the next heir to the thrown following Queen Lili'uokalani. Her exotic beauty was admired by many including Robert Louis Stevenson and she was pursued by eligible bachelors from the nobility and upper stratas of European society. She became the first member of the Hawaiian royalty to receive the kind of training traditionally given to the children of European monarchs in preparation for ascending the throne. She sailed to England, traveled widely, was taught many languages, literature, social graces and other subjects. Hawaiians referred to Kaiulani as "Our Last Hope" as annexation seemed imminent. After annexation, her vitality disappeared, she sought to get away from Honolulu with its atmosphere of swaggering American soldiers and the arrogance of the new government. With a defiance that had become part of her character since the downfall of the Monarchy, Kaiulani went horse riding too often in the chilly wind and rain. Doctors diagnosed her condition as rheumatism of the heart and she died March 6, 1899, surrounded by her heartbroken father, friends and relatives.